Cosmesis after thyroid surgery has always been a concern for patients approaching thyroid surgery. To achieve a scarless surgery in the neck, endoscopic thyroidectomy using different techniques has been described in the literature. The aim of this article is to study the feasibility of endoscopic combined axillary breast approach for thyroid surgery. This is a retrospective study in the department of Endocrine Surgery from a tertiary care center in Delhi, India. Patients who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy at our center during May 2010–November 2015 were included. The procedure was carried out in subjects who opted for the procedure with unilateral thyroid nodules of size less than 4 cm, with benign and indeterminate cytology, and with no previous neck surgery or radiation to the neck. The details of demographic profile, operative parameters, and postoperative management were collected for all the cases. All 12 subjects were females. The mean age of the subjects was 27.2 (range 14–45) years. Mean operative time was 187 (range 110–232) minutes. There was a temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in one case, local wound infection in two cases, prolonged subcutaneous emphysema in five cases, and prolonged analgesic requirement (>5 days) in 10 cases. No life-threatening complications were seen in any of the subjects. Cosmetic results were excellent as there was no visible scar in the neck. The combined breast axillary approach using endoscopic technique for unilateral thyroid nodule is feasible with acceptable morbidity and can be offered to selected patients for cosmetic advantage.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy, minimally invasive thyroidectomy, thyroid nodule
Vivek Aggarwal, Bhanu Kiran Raja, Monika Garg, Deepak Khandelwal, and Bhoopendra Agarwal have nothing to declare in relation to this article. No funding was received for the publication of this article.
Compliance with Ethics: All procedures were followed in accordance with the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 and subsequent revisions
Authorship: All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship of this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval to the version to be published.
February 26, 2017 Accepted
April 10, 2017
Deepak Khandelwal, Department of Endocrinology, Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Punjabi Bagh, Delhi-110026, India. E: email@example.com
This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, adaptation and reproduction provided the original author(s) and source are given appropriate credit.
Ever since thyroid surgery has been described, there is ongoing evolution in the surgical techniques of thyroidectomy. The development aims at increasing safety and improving cosmesis. To achieve safety, surgeons have adopted a number of new technologies such as intraoperative neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay, and alternative energy devices such as ultrasonic shears or bipolar coagulation. For achieving cosmesis newer surgical techniques are being validated. These are developed using endoscopic instruments and the high-density telescope which have allowed surgeons to make a smaller incision and take the line of incision away from exposed parts of the body. Any procedure, which involves using an endoscope for thyroid surgery, is often collectively called “endoscopic thyroidectomy.” Since the first report of endoscopic parathyroidectomy in 1996,1 various minimal invasive approaches have been described in the literature. They could be generally classified into direct (cervical) and indirect (extracervical) approaches depending on the location of the incision.2 For the direct (cervical) approach, the small incision is made in the neck area and the thyroid gland is exposed directly, similar to the conventional thyroidectomy but with endoscopic instruments. It is the indirect methods, which give maximal cosmetic benefit but may not be truly minimally invasive as the dissection involved in raising the flap may be actually more than conventional.3,4
Cosmesis is a prime option for many of our patients approaching for thyroid surgery, especially young females who are afraid of having a scar in the neck. So, we planned to study the feasibility of endoscopic combined axillary breast approach for thyroid surgery in our set-up.
Materials and methods
This retrospective study was conducted in the department of Endocrine Surgery at Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Punjabi Bagh, Delhi, a 400-bed teaching, superspecialty, National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH) and Joint Commission International (JCI) accredited Hospital. All cases who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy between May 2010 and November 2015 were included. The protocol at our center for selecting patients for endoscopic thyroidectomy includes patients with unilateral thyroid nodules with benign and indeterminate cytology, less than
4 cm with no previous neck surgery or radiation to the neck. Choice of the procedure was decided after informed and shared decision making with the patient. The details of demographic profile, operative parameters, and postoperative management were collected for all the cases. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software, version 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). Continuous variables were presented as mean (min–max) and categorical variables were presented as absolute numbers and in percentages if required.
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Endoscopic thyroidectomy, minimally invasive thyroidectomy, thyroid nodule