Welcome to the spring edition of European Endocrinology. This edition begins with an interesting commentary by Lutz Heinemann and colleagues, who offer their expert perspectives on a vital subject: the freedom of science. The authors argue that “full and candid reporting of results is essential for scientific advancement” and explore the multi-faceted role of industry-supported research, along with the impact of the internet and the resulting ease of access to data across the globe. The review articles that follow address a variety of important topics, from diabetes and obesity to neuroendocrine tumours and Addison’s disease and to quote Luigi Meneghini, the author of this edition’s foreword, we are, “confident that you will find tremendous value and insight from these various contributions.”
Foreword – European Endocrinology 2014;10(1):8
Obesity continues to pose a substantial health and economic burden in both the developing and developed world. In the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 36 % of adults are obese, with non-Hispanic blacks having the highest age-adjusted rates (~50 %). An even bigger concern is the rates of obesity in children […]
Freedom of Science – Can Industry Influence What Scientists Publish?
Data are considered to merit publication when they are regarded by journal editors as novel, valid, derived using correct study designs and methods and are correctly interpreted. They are then subject to a wholly independent, unbiased and anonymous peer-review process.3–5 This strict but essentially fair system, however, has recently been threatened when published papers that […]
Hippocampal Volume in Type 1 Diabetes
The hippocampus plays an important role in human learning and memory and is known to be vulnerable to the effects of stress and disease.1 Within animal models of type 1 diabetes,2 significant hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia exposure has been shown to cause complex molecular and structural changes in the hippocampus.2,3 Within humans with type 1 diabetes, […]
Exercise is Medicine—The Importance of Physical Activity, Exercise Training, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Obesity in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Globally, type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. The total number of people with diabetes worldwide is projected to rise from 366 million in 2012 to 552 million in 2030.1 In 2012, type 2 diabetes imposed direct and indirect costs of […]
A Patient-level Analysis of Efficacy and Hypoglycaemia Outcomes Across Treat-to-target Trials with Insulin Glargine Added to Oral Antidiabetes Agents in People with Type 2 Diabetes
Maintaining appropriate glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay the development and progression of diabetes complications.1–3 Initial pharmacological treatment usually begins with metformin (MET), with a second agent being added once monotherapy is insufficient to provide adequate glycaemic control.3 Over time, a substantial proportion of patients will ultimately require insulin therapy to […]
Resveratrol for the Management of Diabetes and its Downstream Pathologies
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, characterised by hyperglycaemia and associated disturbances, which results from defects in insulin secretion, action or a combination of both. Type 1 diabetes is associated with complete or relative insulin deficiency related to autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic b-cells.
Interstitium versus Blood Equilibrium in Glucose Concentration and its Impact on Subcutaneous Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has become a fundamental tool in all those therapeutic applications where the measurement of the concentration and the rate of change of intracorporeal glucose are required, such as in the management of diabetes,1 in the development of closed-loop systems (‘artificial pancreas’)2,3 and tight glycaemic control in critically ill patients.4–6
Diabetes and Sleep Apnoea
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a global epidemic with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 8.3 % (382 million) in 2013 that is forecast to rise to 10.1 % (592 million) in 2035.1 Type 2 diabetes accounts for >90 % of all cases, and costs an estimated 10–12 % of the world’s health expenditure in 2010 to 2013.1–3 In […]
Diabetes and Nutrition
Psychophysical Exams as Early Indicators of Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetes is a metabolic disease consequent to a decrease of insulin activity, which may be due to a reduced availability of this hormone (type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes [IDD]), to an impediment to its normal action or to combination of these two factors (type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes [NIDDM]).
Octreotide – A Review of its Use in Treating Neuroendocrine Tumours
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) is a collective term for a diverse range of neoplasms that arise from cells that originate in the endocrine and nervous systems and share common morphological and immunohistochemical features, including the presence of secretory granules. These tumours can secrete a variety of neuropeptides, which may or may not cause characteristic hormonal symptoms […]
Dual-release Hydrocortisone in Addison’s Disease – A Review of the Literature
In healthy subjects, cortisol, an endogenous glucocorticoid (GC), is secreted by the adrenal gland in a pulsatile and circadian fashion, with a peak release in the morning at wakening and a nadir at midnight.1 It has been demonstrated that loss of cortisol rhythmicity is associated with fatigue, depression, and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance.2,3 In […]
Metabolic Bone Disorders
Osteoporosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients – An Emerging Clinical Concern
The advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.1 In this context, HIV-infected patients are living longer and are facing several associated morbidities related with ageing, such as diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis.
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