We are very pleased to present the spring edition of European Endocrinology. Editorial Board member Vera Popovic-Brkic gives an excellent introduction to the edition and highlights the key articles as well as drawing our readers’ attention to the annual meeting of the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE), of which she is Vice President.
This edition features timely review articles and topical editorials, written by esteemed experts, succinctly examining a wide range of important topics including diabetes, cardiovascular risk, pituitary disorders, plus many more.
We hope you find this issue useful and that it provides helpful information and discussions that are relevant to your practice and interests. Please peruse and enjoy the expert content and we welcome any feedback you may have.
Foreword – European Endocrinology, 2015;11(1):9
Welcome to the spring edition of EU Endocrinology, which features a diverse range of articles covering multiple topics in endocrinology. This issue begins with an article by Sandow et al. that provides an overview of bioequivalence studies of recombinant human insulin preparations, as well as considering the relevance of human insulin in the age of […]
Equivalent Recombinant Human Insulin Preparations and their Place in Therapy
Development of Human Insulins Animal insulins extracted from the pancreas tissue were used for therapy from 1922 until 1974, when semisynthetic human insulin became available in limited quantities by modification of animal insulins.1–4 This development was based on identification of the structure of human insulin from human autopsy material. Reference material was obtained by total […]
Insulin Glulisine in Pregnancy – Experience from Clinical Trials and Post-marketing Surveillance
Diabetes in Pregnancy It has been estimated that type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus (DM) affect at least 1 % of pregnancies.1 Gestational diabetes, which is characterised by glucose intolerance of variable severity that begins or is first diagnosed during pregnancy, may affect up to 15 % of all pregnancies worldwide.2 The […]
GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes and Beyond – New Insights 2015
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) were introduced for the therapy of type 2 diabetes about 10 years ago, with exenatide the first drug in the class. Natural GLP-1 is secreted post-prandially by the L-cells of the intestine. It stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. In addition to having direct […]
Early Vascular Ageing – A Concept in Development
Thomas Sydenham, the great English seventeenth-century physician (see Figure 1), said that “A man is as old as his arteries”, a concept that has once again come into focus of cardiovascular research and clinical activities, which this review aims to describe. In preventive cardiology there has long existed the need to target individuals at risk […]
Which One to Endorse Among the Multitude of Lipid Guidelines?
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the West,1 and dyslipidemia is the major risk factor for atherosclerosis.2 The majority of CVD events would be more susceptible to prevention with effective management for prevention of dyslipidemia. Unfortunately, many patients who have high cardiovascular risk still have unfavourable lipid profiles.3 Because the […]
Cushing’s Disease – Quality of Life, Recurrence and Long-term Morbidity
Cushing’s disease (CD) is a rare condition caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Chronic hypercortisolism is associated with the development of several morbidities that impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and contribute to an increased mortality rate.1–5 Obesity and metabolic alterations, hypertension and cardio-/ cerebrovascular complications, neuropsychiatric, muscle/skeletal, hypercoagulability/thromboembolism and immune consequences remain […]
Current Challenges in the Management of Prolactinomas
Prolactinomas are the commonest pituitary tumours with a prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.5 per 1,000 in the general population. This affection has a large female predominance and a median age of 30 years at diagnosis.1 Prolactinomas in men are characterised by a larger size and a higher frequency of compressive symptoms, invasiveness and resistance […]
Sarcopenia in Endocrine Disorders – The Iceberg or Its Tip?
Endocrine myopathies represent disorders of the musculoskeletal system that occur in the following pathological conditions: exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoid excess (steroid myopathy), morbid obesity (sarcopenic obesity), hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and type 2 diabetes (diabetic myopathy).1–3 Because sarcopenia is their pathophysiological common denominator, the musculoskeletal disorders associated with these endocrine diseases have been […]
Assessing Osteoporosis in the Young Adult
Fragility fractures in the young individual are an uncommon clinical scenario, and when faced with such a situation, appropriate assessment is required to ensure correct diagnosis of the underlying aetiology and to avoid unnecessary interventions. Although primary causes of osteoporosis, such as osteogenesis imperfecta, are considered rare, this group of conditions has considerable phenotypic and […]
Central Precocious Puberty – Management and Long-term Outcomes
Precocious puberty (PP) is defined as the onset of clinical signs of puberty before age 8 years in girls and 9.5 years in boys. However, the onset of puberty may be subject to constitutional (genetics, ethnicity) environmental (secular trends, adoption, absence of the father and possible exposure to oestrogenic endocrine-disruptingchemicals) and nutritional (body mass index) […]
US Endocrinology Highlights
Diagnosis and Management of Acromegaly in 2014 (Update from 2012)
Acromegaly is an uncommon disorder that, in the vast majority of cases, is the result of a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Because tumors are often macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, there may be a number of signs and symptoms related to local mass effects, including headache, visual field loss, ophthalmoplegia, and hypopituitarism. Chronic […]
Validation and Multicenter Clinical Experience of the Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier
Thyroid nodules are a common clinical illness. Neck ultrasonography identifies at least one nodule in 20–76 % of adults, the majority of which are benign.1–3 Cytopathologic evaluation by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has emerged as the principal means to evaluate malignancy risk, and is recommended for most nodules greater than 1–1.5 cm.4–6 However, in […]
Worldwide Coverage of Newborn Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism— A Public Health Challenge
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Obvious manifestations of hypothyroidism are not typically present at birth, meaning that clinical diagnosis is usually delayed until 3 months of age or older. Unfortunately, by the time the diagnosis is suspected, the effects of thyroid deficiency on the developing brain […]
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