Welcome to the summer edition of US Endocrinology featuring review articles on a range of salient topics including diabetes, blood-glucose monitoring, weight management, endocrine oncology, cardiovascular risk, pituitary disorders and pediatric endocrinology. In recent decades, the incidence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2d) has risen to epidemic proportions which will present future challenges for healthcare systems. These two significant health concerns form the focus of this issue of US Endocrinology. The journal features articles on the links between vitamin D deficiency and obesity, particularly in pregnancy, and explores evidence for the role of vitamin D in preventing and treating cancer. There are many more articles featured in this edition and the broad scope of reviews presented herein reflects resurgence in endocrine translational research in response to a growing threat of metabolic disease; this is a global problem attracting attention from the United Nations and other international organizations. Please peruse and enjoy the other articles featured in this journal and do take time to take a look at our eJournal.
Foreword – European Endocrinology, 2013;9(1):5
It is an honour to be invited to write the foreword to what has become, in a few short years, one of the most respectable Endocrine Journals on either side of the Atlantic. I have the privilege to remain one of the relics on the Editorial Board and congratulate myself for being able to keep […]
Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes
The effective management of diabetes requires meticulous glycemic control. The long-term complications resulting from poor glycemic control contribute substantially to the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of diabetes.
The Role of Low-calorie Sweeteners in Diabetes
A dramatic global increase in the number of adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has been observed in the last 30 years.1 Between 1980 and 2008, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes more than doubled, and it is estimated that the prevalence will be more than 500 million by 2030.1–3 Additionally, type 2 diabetes has […]
Blood Glucose Monitoring
Possible Impacts of New Accuracy Standards of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose
Recently, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated 371 million individuals are living with diabetes worldwide, including 50 % who remain undiagnosed.1 The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in every country, and is estimated to cross the half-billion mark by 2030.2 In 2012, worldwide diabetes healthcare expenditure was estimated at $471 billion,1 and in the US […]
Future Perspectives in Glucose Monitoring Sensors
Blood glucose monitoring is fundamental in the management of diabetes and is essential to optimise glycaemic control. Achieving optimal glucose control is important in reducing the risk of significant long-term microvascular (nephropathy, retinopathy) and macrovascular (cardiovascular disease) complications, as well as neuropathy.
Obesity and Weight Management
The Importance of Energy Balance
Obesity is a growing problem with many associated health risks and associated costs.1,2 During 1971 to 2000, the prevalence of obesity in the US increased from 14.5 % to 30.9 %.3 In the US, more than 37 % of adults and almost 17 % of youths were obese in 2009–10.4 Currently over 1.1 billion adults […]
EPODE – A Model for Reducing the Incidence of Obesity and Weight-related Comorbidities
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased worldwide over the last 30 years. 1–5 It was estimated that in 2005, 23.3 % of the world population was overweight and 9.8 % was obese 6 and in 2009–10, 37 % of adults in the US and almost 17 % of youths were obese. 7 Predictions […]
Obesity and Vitamin D Deficiency – Current Concepts on their Impact on Pregnancy
Background and Literature Review
Hypovitaminosis D and Obesity – Coincidence or Consequence?
Hypovitaminosis D and Obesity – Coincidence or Consequence? Nowadays the number of studies involving vitamin D and its interaction with metabolism have grown and gained great exposure in the scientific literature. The main reason for this is the high incidence of its deficiency in different populations worldwide and the rising evidence of its role in […]
Vitamin D and Cancer—A Review
According to the American Cancer Society, in 2013 there will be an estimated 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 deaths from cancer. Lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer are the most common malignancies in the US, accounting for approximately 50 % of new cancer diagnoses. Given the morbidity and mortality of these four malignancies (see […]
A Review of Evidence that Ultraviolet-B Irradiance and Vitamin D Reduce Risk for Cancer
In 1980, the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland proposed the ultraviolet-B (UVB)–vitamin D–cancer hypothesis after observing that US colon cancer mortality rates were lowest in the sunny southwest and highest in the least sunny northeast.1 The evidence that UVB irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk for many cancers continues to increase. As of March […]
Ezetimibe in the Treatment of Patients with Metabolic Diseases
Dyslipidaemia along with hypertension, obesity and cigarette smoking are established risk factors for premature heart disease.1 The third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) recommends a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of <2.6 mmol/l (<100 mg/dl) for patients with high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) or CAD […]
Implications of Somatostatin Analogs in the Treatment of Acromegaly
Acromegaly Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations
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