Welcome to the autumn edition of European Endocrinology. As usual, this edition features first-rate, expert content examining a wide range of pertinent topics. Diabetes provides a significant focus and we welcome a special report from the EASD, which offers an overview of the important role they play in tackling the alarming diabetes epidemic through a crucial combination of research, education and funding. We also include a number of articles on obesity, widely accepted as the most significant risk factor for diabetes and a worthy focus for our attention. Please peruse and enjoy the expert content and we welcome your feedback.
Foreword – European Endocrinology, 2013;9(2):72
Diabetologists across Europe and beyond continue to tackle the growing burden posed by diabetes and its complications. Over the course of nearly 50 years, the Annual Meeting of the European Association of the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has become the world’s leading international forum for diabetes research, covering the most relevant and cutting-edge aspects of […]
The European Association for the Study of Diabetes – Bringing Research, Education and Funding Together
In 1965 the first General Assembly of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) was held with Dr AE Renold and 220 participants in Montecatini, Italy. The decision to form the EASD was taken in the preceding year at the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Congress in Toronto. Dr Renold presented the Statutes, which […]
Lixisenatide – A New Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
The total number of people with diabetes worldwide is projected to rise from 366 million in 2012 to 552 million in 2030.1 Optimal glycaemic control is essential to managing risks in patients with type 2 diabetes as lower glycaemic exposure is associated with a 25 % reduction in the risk of microvascular complications.2 However, despite […]
Evaluation of the JuniorSTAR® Half-unit Insulin Pen in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes – User Perspectives
Type 1 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder in children. Worldwide, there are approximately 490,000 children with type 1 diabetes, and 78,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.1 As of today, the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children younger than 15 years old is increasing. If this trend continues, new cases in European […]
Can Bariatric Surgery be Considered Standard Therapy to Treat Type 2 Diabetes?
Obesity has become an increasingly important health problem. According to estimations of the World Health Organization, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has more than doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, 10 % of men and 14 % of women in the world were obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2), compared with 5 % […]
Diabetes and Nutrition
The Role of Low-calorie Sweeteners in Diabetes
A dramatic global increase in the number of adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has been observed in the last 30 years.1 Between 1980 and 2008, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes more than doubled, and it is estimated that the prevalence will be more than 500 million by 2030.1–3 Additionally, type 2 diabetes has […]
The Emerging Health Benefits of Coffee with an Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Coffee is a complex chemical mixture that contains many bioactive molecules. These include chlorogenic acid, polyphenols, methylxanthines including caffeine, carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogenous compounds, nicotinic acid, potassium and magnesium.1 With the exception of water, coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world and almost 500 billion cups are consumed annually. In 2007, Finland was the […]
Diabetes and Sleep Apnoea
Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea on Type 2 Diabetes and Vice Versa
Type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are both highly prevalent conditions with a major impact on public health.1,2 Obesity is a common feature of both groups of patients. Thus, the metabolic syndrome, which is characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia and hypertension, can often be found in both type 2 diabetes and […]
Obesity and Weight Management
The Importance of Energy Balance
Obesity is a growing problem with many associated health risks and associated costs.1,2 During 1971 to 2000, the prevalence of obesity in the US increased from 14.5 % to 30.9 %.3 In the US, more than 37 % of adults and almost 17 % of youths were obese in 2009–10.4 Currently over 1.1 billion adults […]
EPODE – A Model for Reducing the Incidence of Obesity and Weight-related Comorbidities
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased worldwide over the last 30 years. 1–5 It was estimated that in 2005, 23.3 % of the world population was overweight and 9.8 % was obese 6 and in 2009–10, 37 % of adults in the US and almost 17 % of youths were obese. 7 Predictions […]
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy—More Questions than Answers
The global obesity pandemic has been well documented and affects both high- and low-income countries.1 In the US, two-thirds of adults are classified as either overweight or obese.2,3 In tandem with the high prevalence of obesity is a change in the prevalence of obesity among reproductive-aged women. Therefore, obesity-related morbid conditions such as chronic hypertension […]
Obesity and Vitamin D Deficiency – Current Concepts on their Impact on Pregnancy
Background and Literature Review
Hypovitaminosis D and Obesity – Coincidence or Consequence?
Hypovitaminosis D and Obesity – Coincidence or Consequence? Nowadays the number of studies involving vitamin D and its interaction with metabolism have grown and gained great exposure in the scientific literature. The main reason for this is the high incidence of its deficiency in different populations worldwide and the rising evidence of its role in […]
Implications of Somatostatin Analogues in the Treatment of Acromegaly
Acromegaly Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations
Congenital Growth Hormone Deficiency – A Review with a Focus on Neuroimaging
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) causes low growth velocity in childhood, and if left untreated, severe short stature in adulthood. It is diagnosed by examining auxological data, thorough clinical examination and provocative testing. Patients with congenital GHD may have other pituitary hormone abnormalities and abnormal pituitary anatomy.
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in Children and Adolescents
Osteoporosis and related fragility fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries.1 The lifetime risk of osteoporosis-related fractures exceeds 40 % in women and 20 % in men.2 According to the definition set by the World Health Organization (WHO), osteoporosis is defined as a “systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone […]
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