touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology 18.2
The latest issue of touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology is live! This free-to-access issue is full of topical content on a range of important topics including cardiovascular risk, metabolic disorders, endocrine oncology, paediatric endocrinology, diabetes and liver disorders.
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Foreword: touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology 18.2
Welcome to the latest edition of touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology, which includes a broad range of articles selected for their evaluation of current practices and research that directly affect endocrinologists as well as being of interest to the wider biomedical community. We begin with an editorial from Robert Hegele on the subject of targeted reduction of apolipoprotein […]
APOC3 Interference for Familial Chylomicronaemia Syndrome
Chylomicronaemia refers to the pathological presence of large, circulating, intestinally derived chylomicrons.1 Clinical features of chylomicronaemia syndrome include lipaemic plasma, lipaemia retinalis, eruptive xanthomas, hepatosplenomegaly, neurological symptoms such as mental fog and mood changes and, most importantly, increased risk of acute pancreatitis.1,2 When smaller atherogenic triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins are concomitantly elevated, the risk of myocardial infarction […]
Macimorelin Acetate for the Diagnosis of Childhood-onset Growth Hormone Deficiency
In a 1958 article titled “Treatment of a pituitary dwarf with human growth hormone”, the merits of human growth hormone (GH) as a treatment for GH deficiency (GHD) were outlined by Raben.1 Beyond its use as a treatment for short stature, GH can be used for other manifestations associated with a GH-deficient state. Therefore, establishing a […]
A New Medical Therapy for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1?
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited tumour endocrine syndrome, with the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland and pancreas as the main sites of MEN1-related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). MEN1 is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, with 90% of individuals diagnosed with this disease having an affected parent, while only 10% have a de […]
Statin-related Muscle Toxicity: An Evidence-based Review
In the early 1970s, the discovery of statin by Dr Akira Endo changed the fate of cardiovascular disease prevention and the treatment of atherosclerosis. It was during this period that the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis was revealed, and the enzyme hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase became the target for many pharmaceutical products. Brought up in […]
Assessing the Incidence of New-onset Diabetes Mellitus with Statin Use: A Systematic Review of the Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
Recently, concern has been raised that statin therapy may be associated with new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), especially given the wide usage of statins in the treatment of dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Statins have been found to affect not only the functioning of the beta cells of the pancreas, but their use also leads to […]
Non-albuminuric Diabetic Kidney Disease Phenotype: Beyond Albuminuria
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide.1,2 For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are relevant to prevent the progression of this disease. Currently, the urinary albumin excretion rate and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are widely accepted as diagnosis criteria, and the […]
Clinical Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms for Cardiovascular and Kidney Benefits from Sodium–Glucose Co-transporter-2 Inhibitors
Over 37 million people in the USA live with diabetes mellitus, equating to over 11% of the population.1 The large majority of these individuals (around 90–95%) have type 2 diabetes (T2D).1 Approximately 40% of patients T2D develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), with CKD in diabetes being the leading cause of kidney failure and need for kidney-replacement therapy […]
Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Older Adults: A Review of Benefits, Challenges and Future Directions
Recent advances in technology have changed the landscape for managing diabetes treatment. Thanks to innovations such as connected insulin pens, sensor-augmented pump systems, automated insulin delivery, integrated mobile applications and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, people with diabetes now have access to devices that are easier to use and far less invasive than those available […]
Review of the Function of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis in Children and Adolescents with Cancer
The development of effective therapies for the management of cancer in childhood has led to outstanding improvements in survival over the past decades. With this, a growing population of childhood cancer survivors are subject to long-term sequelae impacting on health. Endocrine disorders, and especially reproductive function in adulthood, have become an important concern.1 There is a […]
Testosterone Replacement Therapy: A Narrative Review with a Focus on New Oral Formulations
Depending on how it is defined, male hypogonadism affects between 10% and 30% of the male population and is often under-recognized and under-treated.1–3 It is defined by low sex hormone levels (<12 nmol/L or <300 ng/dL), which can affect multiple organ systems, resulting in symptoms and signs of testosterone deficiency (Table 1) and significantly reducing quality […]
Spurious Serum Hormone Immunoassay Results: Causes, Recognition, Management
Clinicians depend on accurate, precise and reproducible hormone measurements for the diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders. Immunoassays have constituted one of the major methods of measuring hormone levels in blood, urine and other fluids, as well as in tissue for over 50 years. The two major methodologies are competitive and non-competitive immunoassays, and each […]
Advances and Emerging Therapies in the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which impacts an estimated 25% of the world’s adult population,1–3 is the principal cause of chronic liver disease globally. NAFLD as a whole represents a pathological spectrum of liver injury, spanning from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, with an evolutionary course to cirrhosis and risk of hepatocellular […]
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