We are very pleased to present the summer edition of US Endocrinology. On the journal’s 10th anniversary we would like to thank all those who have contributed to its success over the years. This edition features an excellent foreword by Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, eagerly anticipating the 74th scientific sessions of one of our valued media partners, the American Diabetes Association (ADA), of which he is President-Elect for Medicine & Science.
Dr Dagogo-Jack’s foreword rightly highlights the importance of the united, global efforts of the scientific community, industry and government in the fight against the diabetes epidemic. With a significant focus on both diabetes and obesity, this edition presents insightful discussions of topics pertinent to this crucial fight and we concur with Dr Dogogo-Jack’s concluding message, “It is only a matter of time before even diabetes succumbs to the overwhelming force of science.”
For those not focused on Diabetes, we also feature key updates on pituitary disorders and would like to highlight our lasting partnership with the Pituitary Network Association (PNA). We finally include an interesting article on the emergence of osteoporosis in HIV patients.
Foreword – US Endocrinology. 2014;10:6
Welcome to the 2014 summer edition of US Endocrinology, featuring a selection of insightful review articles by senior experts and colleagues from the field of endocrinology. We thank everyone who has participated for their time and great effort, especially the expert authors for contributing such thought-provoking discussions on a variety of topics. With a significant […]
Glucose Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor Treatments in Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes imposes a substantial burden on societies worldwide: approximately 25 million individuals in the US have diabetes, of which more than 95 % is type 2.1 Furthermore, its incidence is increasing, a further 79 million adults in the US have pre-diabetes and one in three US adults could have diabetes by 2050.1 In addition, the […]
Nutrition Therapy in Diabetes Management—An Overview of the Recent American Diabetes Association Position Statement
Diabetes Nutrition Therapy The American Diabetes Association (ADA) published Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults with Diabetes in November 2013.1 The new position statement provides a set of recommendations based on a recent review of the literature on diabetes nutrition research. A table listing the supporting research for each recommendation is available online […]
Glycemic Variability in Type 1 Diabetes—Does It Matter?
One of the first observations that led to the consideration of glycemic variability (GV) as a potential contributor to diabetes complications in type 1 diabetes was from retrospective analysis of data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) study, which suggested that risk for retinopathy is determined by factors other than glycosylated hemoglobin ( […]
Diabetic Retinopathy—Update on Prevention Techniques, Present Therapies, and New Leads
Diabetes is a metabolic disease resulting from the body’s insufficient production or use of insulin, a peptide hormone responsible for regulating glucose levels in the blood and tissues. Especially when improperly managed, diabetes results in a number of complications over time, affecting nearly every organ system, including the ocular tissue.
Psychophysical Exams as Early Indicators of Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetes is a metabolic disease consequent to a decrease of insulin activity, which may be due to a reduced availability of this hormone (type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes [IDD]), to an impediment to its normal action or to combination of these two factors (type 2 diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes [NIDDM]).
Diabetes and Sleep Apnea
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a global epidemic with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 8.3 % (382 million) in 2013 that is forecast to rise to 10.1 % (592 million) in 2035.1 Type 2 diabetes accounts for >90 % of all cases, and costs an estimated 10–12 % of the world’s health expenditure in 2010 to 2013.1–3 In […]
Obesity and Weight Management
Sustained-release Naltrexone/Bupropion— A Novel Pharmacologic Approach to Obesity and Food Craving
The growing prevalence of obesity is a global health concern. In 2009 to 2010, more than one-third of adults and 17 % of youth in the US were obese, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Obesity is associated with numerous health risks such as hypertension,1 cardiovascular disease (CVD),2 diabetes,3,4 stroke,5 and various cancers.6 Obesity […]
Energy Flux and its Role in Obesity and Metabolic Disease
Obesity is a global epidemic and represents a substantial health and economic burden.
What is Causing the Worldwide Rise in Body Weight?
For several decades human body weight has been increasing worldwide to a point where the prevalence of overweight and obese adults and children has been described as epidemic or even pandemic.1–6 The statistics are alarming: in 2005 1.6 billion people worldwide were overweight and 400 million people were obese (one in ten adults).
Glucagon Stimulation Testing in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency— A 2014 Update
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is characterized by alterations in body composition, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, bone mineral density, cardiovascular risk profile, and quality of life.1 Treatment with GH replacement has been shown to improve many, but not all, of these abnormalities.2 By contrast, untreated GHD is associated with increased mortality and morbidity that […]
Improving Quality of Life in Patients with Pituitary Tumours
Pituitary tumours are associated with pituitary dysfunction, either hypersecretion (mainly prolactinomas, acromegaly or Cushing’s disease [CD]) or hypopituitarism, due to compression or destruction of normal pituitary cells. They may also cause headache or visual disturbances due to pressure on surrounding structures.
Metabolic Bone Disorders
Osteoporosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients – An Emerging Clinical Concern
The advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.1 In this context, HIV-infected patients are living longer and are facing several associated morbidities related with ageing, such as diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis.
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