An Introduction to Pituitary Disorders
Pituitary disorders are rare and include acromegaly, adult growth hormone deficiency, craniopharyngioma, Cushing’s disease, diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism, non-functioning tumours and prolactinoma. These conditions can be hard to diagnose, but advances in pituitary imaging technology and the development of intraoperative MRI have facilitated prompt detection. Treatments include pituitary hormone replacement, dopamine agonist therapy for the treatment of prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours and some growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours, and somatostatin, octreotide and pegvisomant for the treatment of acromegaly. The approval of oral octreotide delayed-release capsules is set to transform the maintenance therapy of patients with acromegaly.
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Pituitary Disorders Content
Susan Samson, ENDO 2021: Outcomes from the CHIASMA OPTIMAL Open-Label Extension Study
We were delighted to catch up with Dr Susan Samson (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, US) to discuss the one-year outcomes of oral octreotide capsule use in patients with acromegaly. ‘One-Year Outcomes of the Open-Label Extension of CHIASMA OPTIMAL, a Phase 3 Study of Oral Octreotide Capsules in Acromegaly.‘ (PRESENTATION NUMBER: OR14-3) was presented at the […]
Case Report of a Rare Adrenocortical Oncocytoma Suspected to be an Adrenal Carcinoma
touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology. 2021;17(1):71–4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2021.17.1.71
Oncocytomas are epithelial tumours composed of cells with eosinophilic, mitochondria-rich cytoplasm.1 They can occur in various organs, such as the kidneys, thyroid, pituitary gland, salivary glands and parathyroid glands. Rarely, it has been reported in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.2–4 Adrenal oncocytomas are extremely rare, with nearly 200 published cases since Kakimoto et al. reported the first […]
An Update on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-related Hypophysitis
US Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):117–24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2020.16.2.117
The use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer has been revolutionary, opening a new era in the fight against cancer. The principle of immunotherapy involves using pharmacotherapy to harness the power of the body’s own immune system to destroy cancer cells.1 Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel form of pharmacologic immunotherapy used in the […]
Acromegaly Due to McCune–Albright Syndrome
US Endocrinology. 2020;16(1):47–50 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2020.16.1.47
McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is a genetic disorder first described by McCune1 and Albright2 in the 1930s as a triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait spots, and precocious puberty (Figure 1). Since then, other hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies have been described in MAS, including hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, and acromegaly.3 Patients with MAS display mosaicism as the disease results […]
The Severity of Growth Hormone Deficiency does not Predict the Presence or Absence of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities – A Retrospective Review
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(1):60-4
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an endocrine cause of short stature. GHD may be idiopathic, due to brain tumours affecting the pituitary gland, morphologic pituitary abnormalities, or genetic defects.1,2 The diagnosis of GHD is based on auxologic criteria and laboratory studies including tests of growth hormone (GH) secretion by stimulating GH release.3 The identification of […]
The Interplay Between Pituitary Health and Diabetes Mellitus – The Need for ‘Hypophyseo-vigilance’
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(1):25-31
The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is the ‘master gland’ that secretes multiple hormones which regulate the functioning of other endocrine organs, such as the thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads. Though none of the major pituitary hormones directly control the endocrine glandular components of the pancreas, there are multiple indirect interactions that alter glucose homeostasis. Bromocriptine […]
Functioning Pituitary Adenomas – Current Treatment Options and Emerging Medical Therapies
European Endocrinology. 2019:15(1):30–40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2019.15.1.30
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumours that arise from the adenohypophysis. They are the second most frequent intracranial tumour type after meningiomas, and account for 16.2% of all primary cranial neoplasms.1 Though likely an underestimate, the incidence of pituitary adenomas is approximately four per 100,000 persons per year,2,3 and incidence increases with age.4 Prolactinomas and non-functioning […]
Updates in Diagnosis and Treatment of Acromegaly
European Endocrinology, 2018;14(2):57–61 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2018.14.2.57
Acromegaly is a chronic disorder characterised by growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion, predominantly caused by a pituitary adenoma.1 Disease prevalence ranges from 2.8–13.7 cases and annual incidence is between 0.2–1.1 cases/100,000 people; however, real incidence is likely much higher.2,3 Average age at diagnosis ranges from 40–50 years4–6 and mean delay in diagnosis is approximately 10–11 years. […]
Exciting Developments in the Medical Management of Cushing’s Disease
US Endocrinology, 2015;11(2):95–6 DOI: http://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2015.11.02.95
In 1932, Dr Harvey Cushing published his findings on a series of patients with what he called the “killing disease,” revealing that the median survival for most of his patients was less than 5 years from diagnosis.1 With advances in surgical techniques and medical management of comorbidities, the standardized mortality ratio for patients with Cushing’s […]
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