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  • Thyroid Disorders

    An Introduction to Thyroid Disorders

    Thyroid disorders encompass primary thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid enlargement), thyroid cancer and thyroid disease in pregnancy. Hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent global health problem. It can be successfully managed by lifelong treatment with levothyroxine, but challenges include underdiagnosis, optimal treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the use of levothyroxine monotherapy versus combination with triiodothyronine. Thyroid cancer advances include therapies targeting the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, or VEGF, and have resulted in significant clinical benefits. Immunotherapies also appear promising. However, improved options are needed for patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and undifferentiated cancers.

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