An Introduction to Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid disorders encompass primary thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid enlargement), thyroid cancer and thyroid disease in pregnancy. Hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent global health problem. It can be successfully managed by lifelong treatment with levothyroxine, but challenges include underdiagnosis, optimal treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the use of levothyroxine monotherapy versus combination with triiodothyronine. Thyroid cancer advances include therapies targeting the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, or VEGF, and have resulted in significant clinical benefits. Immunotherapies also appear promising. However, improved options are needed for patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and undifferentiated cancers.
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Thyroid Disorders Content
Presentation of Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1b with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy and Laryngospasm: Case Report
US Endocrinology. 2021;17(1):Online ahead of journal publication
The clinical presentation of hypocalcemia varies based on the degree and chronicity of the derangement. Although many patients remain asymptomatic, mild symptoms of hypocalcemia include circumoral and extremity paresthesia, Chvostek’s sign and Trousseau’s sign; more severe derangements can present with cardiac arrythmias and seizures.1–3 Chronic hypocalcemia may present with cataracts and basal ganglia calcifications.2,3 Due […]
Ferdy van Geest, ETA 2021: Efficacy of T3 analogue Triac for MCT8 deficiency
Dr Ferdy van Geest, (Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) kindly spoke with us about the results of his study investigating Triac in patients with MCT8. The abstract entitled ‘Long-term efficacy of triiodothyronine analogue Triac in children and adults with monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency: an international, real-life cohort study’ (Abstract 82) was given at European […]
Lisanne de Koster, ETA 2021: FDG-PET/CT Prior to Diagnostic Thyroid Surgery
We caught up with Dr Lisanne de Koster, (Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands) to discuss her study which investigated whether the use of FDG-PET/CT could prevent unnecessary diagnostic thyroid surgery. The abstract ‘Efficacy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluation of cytological indeterminate thyroid nodules prior to surgery (EfFECTS): a randomised-controlled multicentre trial’ (Abstract 49) was […]
Simultaneous Onset of Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism and Rheumatic Fever in an Adolescent Female—Case Report
US Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):125–8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2020.16.2.125
Hyperthyroidism is associated with neurological symptoms, such as tremor and muscle weakness, but chorea is rare and occurs in less than 2% of patients.1 Chorea is rarely seen at presentation in Graves’ disease, and more commonly occurs with streptococcal infection. Acute rheumatic fever is a well-known sequela of streptococcal pharyngitis that is diagnosed based on the […]
Carbohydrate-rich Meals Have no Impact on Post-prandial Lipid Parameters in Indians with Subclinical and Overt Primary Hypothyroidism
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):161–6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.2.156
The estimation of lipid parameters has traditionally been carried out in the fasting state, without definitive evidence to suggest that this is superior to assessing them in the post-prandial period in terms of predicting metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk.1 Post-prandial lipoprotein metabolism is believed to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis.2 Post-prandial dyslipidaemia may be […]
A Review of the Pathology, Diagnosis and Management of Colloid Goitre
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):131–5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.2.131
Colloid goitre is defined as thyroid enlargement without accompanying disturbance in thyroid function. This is a common pathology, frequently found in clinical practice during a physical or ultrasound examination. Colloid goitre has been classified as nontoxic goitre according to the updated International Classification of Diseases (Table 1).1 Colloid goitre is also known as endemic goitre, simple […]
Impact of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Reproductive and Metabolic Parameters in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome – A Cross-sectional Study from Bangladesh
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):156–60 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.2.156
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, is a heterogeneous androgen-excess disorder with different degrees of reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions.1 Thyroid disorders are also quite common and are among the most common endocrine disorders worldwide.2,3 Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as an elevation of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels beyond […]
Dome-and-dart T Waves and Hyperthyroidism – A Case Report
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(1):69-71
Hyperthyroidism is a disease characterised by excess thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion from the thyroid gland. It is most frequently caused by Graves’ disease and toxic nodular goiter. Systemic complications involving the respiratory, cardiac and gastrointestinal systems, as well as ocular manifestations, such as exophthalmos, can be caused by hyperthyroidism. Common cardiologic complications are atrial […]
Case Reports of Familial Non-autoimmune Hyperthyroidism in Two Malaysian Families due to Germline-activating Mutations in the Thyrotropin Receptor Gene
US Endocrinology. 2020;16(1):42–6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2020.16.1.42
In children, hyperthyroidism occurs less commonly compared to hypothyroidism, yet it is far more symptomatic.1 Hyperthyroidism in children is mostly due to autoimmunity, predominantly as a result of Graves’ disease.2 Non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (NAH) is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism in children. The existence of a non-autoimmune form of goitrous hyperthyroidism was first hypothesized in 1982, […]
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