An Introduction to Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid disorders encompass primary thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid enlargement), thyroid cancer and thyroid disease in pregnancy. Hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent global health problem. It can be successfully managed by lifelong treatment with levothyroxine, but challenges include underdiagnosis, optimal treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the use of levothyroxine monotherapy versus combination with triiodothyronine. Thyroid cancer advances include therapies targeting the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, or VEGF, and have resulted in significant clinical benefits. Immunotherapies also appear promising. However, improved options are needed for patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and undifferentiated cancers.
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Thyroid Disorders Content
Erratum to Correct Informed Patient Consent Statement
touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology. 2024;20(1):2
Challenges in Risk Stratification of Solid Atypical Mixed Echogenicity Thyroid Nodules
touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology. 2024;20(1):Online ahead of journal publication
In the USA, neck ultrasound (US) identifies thyroid nodules (TNs) in 30–50% of adult patients.1,2 Given that the risk of malignancy (ROM) for all combined thyroid nodule types ranges from 5% to 15%,2,3 current guidelines recommend US of the neck initially, to identify suspected TNs.4 Neck US is used to localize TNs, facilitate risk stratification, clarify the necessity […]
Practical considerations for personalized medicine in thyroid cancer: Which therapies are suited to particular patient profiles?
Prof. Brose explores how individual patient profiles underpin personalized medicine in thyroid cancer.
- Identify the different types of thyroid cancer and the recommended methods to test for specific biomarkers
- Evaluate the rationale and latest clinical evidence for current and emerging targeted therapies for thyroid cancer
- Outline the indications, precautions and special considerations related to targeted therapies for personalized thyroid cancer care
An Update on Alopecia and its Association With Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases
touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology. 2023;19(2):54-59
Alopecia is a dermatological disorder characterized by hair loss from the scalp or body.1–3 It is one of the most common dermatological disorders worldwide and has several aetiologies, such as hereditary background, hormonal imbalance, infection or idiopathic causes.1,3,4 Alopecia can be classified into two main categories: scarring (or cicatricial) alopecia and non-scarring (non-cicatricial) alopecia (Figure 1).1–3 Scarring […]
Parathyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Recurrent Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Neck Mass: A Case Report
touchREVIEWS in Endocrinology. 2023;19(2):80-85
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine neoplasm with an incidence of 0.5–2.0% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).1 It was first described in 1904 by de Quevain, when it was found in a patient presenting with a non-functioning parathyroid mass.2 Around 26 years later, Sainton and Millot described the first functioning parathyroid carcinoma.3 There is no […]
Sina Jasim, ENDO23: Cytologic and Molecular Assessment of Isthmus Thyroid Nodules
Thyroid nodules arising in the isthmus are more likely to be malignant and demonstrate more aggressive behavior relative to thyroid nodules from either thyroid lobe. touchENDOCRINOLOGY were joined by Dr Sina Jasim (Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA) to discuss the main findings of her study presented at ENDO23. The abstract ‘THU-680 – Cytologic And […]
Updated guidelines for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism: Aliya Khan, WCO-IOF-ESCEO 2023
Surgery remains a mainstay of treatment in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), the new guidelines for management provide alternative options for patients in which surgery is contraindicated. We were delighted to speak to Prof. Aliya A. Khan (McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, Canada) around the current management of PHPT, the updates to management in the new guidelines […]
Symptoms, diagnosis and complications in primary hyperparathyroidism: Aliya Khan, WCO-IOF-ESCEO 2023
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is caused by the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid gland, the symptoms of which can remain dormant until later in life and as such PHPT is often underdiagnosed. We were delighted to speak to Prof. Aliya A. Khan (McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, Canada) around the presentation of PHPT, […]
Giulia Brigante, ECE 2023: The LEVOLIO study: levothyroxine and liothyronine combination therapy for hypothryroidism
The LEVOLIO study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on levothyroxine and liothyronine combination therapy for hypothryroidism. touchENDOCRINOLOGY were delighted to speak with Dr Giulia Brigante (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy) about the data from the LEVOLIO study, how clinically meaningful the findings are and what future studies are needed. The abstract […]