An Introduction to Cardiovascular Risk
Despite substantial treatment advances, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the world. Recent research has revealed that nearly seven in ten cases of CVD can be explained by modifiable risk factors: such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, low education, smoking, dyslipidaemia, poor diet, strength and physical activity, diabetes, depression, and air pollution. Diagnosis and management of these risk factors are essential to preventing premature deaths due to CVD. However, there remains a significant risk of cardiovascular events despite optimal risk factor management. Other less understood, potentially modifiable risk factors include inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and metabolic pathways, and warrant further study.
Browse our gallery of video highlights and short articles from the conference hub, providing the latest expert insights from major conferences and peer-reviewed articles from the journal portfolio.
Cardiovascular Risk Content
Updates and new guidelines in statin therapy
Watch clinical specialists from Europe and the USA discuss techniques for the management and treatment of patients with high LDL-C levels, recorded during the ESC Congress 2019, Paris, France.
- Understand the importance of the ACC/AHA 2018 and ESC 2019 guidelines for management of blood cholesterol/dyslipidaemias with respect to clinical practice
- Know the risks and benefits of statin treatment with respect to the risk for type 2 diabetes
- Understand the potential for abnormal liver function and metabolic syndrome and be aware of drug-drug interaction as most statins are metabolized via the cytochrome P450 pathway
- Know that the PROVE IT and REAL-CAD trials show that high-dose statin therapy is superior to moderate or low dose in cardiovascular event reduction
- Understand that combination therapy gives an additional reduction in LDL levels and that statin dose should be titrated to risk
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):97–9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.2.97
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCMP), also known as ‘broken heart syndrome’ or ‘stress cardiomyopathy’, is a well-characterised condition. It presents in the acute phase with clinical, biochemical and electrocardiographic features similar to acute myocardial infarction. However, on performing an angiogram, the patient is found to have no coronary artery involvement. ‘Takotsubo’ is a Japanese word for an […]
Spotlight Interview with Baptist Gallwitz
Baptist Gallwitz is Professor of Medicine at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen in Germany. He has has authored 100+ peer reviewed articles and his main scientific focus is on the physiology of incretin hormones. Professor Gallwitz is currently a Member of the Board of the Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft (DDG, German Diabetes Society) and a number […]
Once-weekly Dulaglutide and Major Cardiovascular Events—Results of the REWIND Trial
US Endocrinology. 2019;15(2):65-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2019.15.2.65
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have become mandatory for glucose-lowering drugs in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) since 2008, following the withdrawal of rosiglitazone from the market because of its association with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 In subsequent years, results have emerged from several CVOTs, with many more underway, all demonstrating […]
Diabetes, Heart Failure and Albuminuria
Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk for heart failure (HF) but, until recently, this topic has not received the attention it deserves; studies on the cardiovascular (CV) risks of T2D have focussed primarily on atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (‘the pipes’). However, the growing health and socioeconomic burden of HF (‘the pump’) […]
Clifford J Bailey, EASD 2019: Heart failure and diabetes
At the European Society for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, Clifford Bailey discusses the findings of the EMPA-REG trial and what this has taught us about the heart failure and diabetes. Questions 1. What are the major types of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes? (0:05) 2. What is the impact of intensive […]
Jose Juanatey, EASD 2019: Guideline-directed treatment decisions in everyday practice
At the European Society for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, it was a pleasure to meet Jose Juanatey to discuss the latest insights in making guideline-directed treatment decisions in everyday practice. Questions 1. How can we optimise patient involvement in therapeutic decision making? (0:05) 2. What are the most important factors […]
Navigating the Major Adverse Cardiovascular Event (MACE)-atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease versus Heart Failure
US Endocrinology. 2019;15(1):24–5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2019.15.1.24
Heart failure (HF) is a disease that affects about 10% of men and 8% of women over the age of 60 years, and its prevalence increases with age.1 HF and type 2 diabetes are each characterized by insulin resistance and are accompanied by the activation of neurohormonal systems; 35–45% of patients with HF have diabetes.2 HF is […]
Syed Abbas Raza, EASD 2018 – Latest advances in Aspirin use
Dr Raza discusses the current status of aspirin use and the latest clinical trial data. Questions: 1. What is the historic importance of aspirin use? (0:12) 2. What are the current practices and guidelines for aspirin use? (1:00) 3. What recent data have been presented in aspirin use? (1:50) 4. What should clinicians do in […]
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