An Introduction to Cardiovascular Risk
Despite substantial treatment advances, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the world. Recent research has revealed that nearly seven in ten cases of CVD can be explained by modifiable risk factors: such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, low education, smoking, dyslipidaemia, poor diet, strength and physical activity, diabetes, depression, and air pollution. Diagnosis and management of these risk factors are essential to preventing premature deaths due to CVD. However, there remains a significant risk of cardiovascular events despite optimal risk factor management. Other less understood, potentially modifiable risk factors include inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and metabolic pathways, and warrant further study.
Browse our gallery of video highlights and short articles from the conference hub, providing the latest expert insights from major conferences and peer-reviewed articles from the journal portfolio.
Cardiovascular Risk Content
Updates and new guidelines in statin therapy
Watch clinical specialists from Europe and the USA discuss techniques for the management and treatment of patients with high LDL-C levels, recorded during the ESC Congress 2019, Paris, France.
- Understand the importance of the ACC/AHA 2018 and ESC 2019 guidelines for management of blood cholesterol/dyslipidaemias with respect to clinical practice
- Know the risks and benefits of statin treatment with respect to the risk for type 2 diabetes
- Understand the potential for abnormal liver function and metabolic syndrome and be aware of drug-drug interaction as most statins are metabolized via the cytochrome P450 pathway
- Know that the PROVE IT and REAL-CAD trials show that high-dose statin therapy is superior to moderate or low dose in cardiovascular event reduction
- Understand that combination therapy gives an additional reduction in LDL levels and that statin dose should be titrated to risk
Current and future management of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis: From statins to combination therapy
Watch an expert panel discuss cholesterol-lowering regimens in the management of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis.
- Recall the current standard of care for cholesterol-lowering therapy and the potential limitations of statin monotherapy
- Discuss the clinical considerations which guide the choice of second-line or add-on therapy when statin monotherapy is ineffective or not tolerated
- Summarize the most recent data on the effect of dual lipid-lowering therapy on hyperlipidaemia and the risk for atherosclerosis
European Endocrinology. 2020;16(2):97–9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.2.97
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCMP), also known as ‘broken heart syndrome’ or ‘stress cardiomyopathy’, is a well-characterised condition. It presents in the acute phase with clinical, biochemical and electrocardiographic features similar to acute myocardial infarction. However, on performing an angiogram, the patient is found to have no coronary artery involvement. ‘Takotsubo’ is a Japanese word for an […]
Once-weekly Dulaglutide and Major Cardiovascular Events—Results of the REWIND Trial
US Endocrinology. 2019;15(2):65-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2019.15.2.65
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have become mandatory for glucose-lowering drugs in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) since 2008, following the withdrawal of rosiglitazone from the market because of its association with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 In subsequent years, results have emerged from several CVOTs, with many more underway, all demonstrating […]
Clifford J Bailey, EASD 2019: Heart failure and diabetes
At the European Society for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, Clifford Bailey discusses the findings of the EMPA-REG trial and what this has taught us about the heart failure and diabetes. Questions 1. What are the major types of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes? (0:05) 2. What is the impact of intensive […]
Jose Juanatey, EASD 2019: Guideline-directed treatment decisions in everyday practice
At the European Society for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, it was a pleasure to meet Jose Juanatey to discuss the latest insights in making guideline-directed treatment decisions in everyday practice. Questions 1. How can we optimise patient involvement in therapeutic decision making? (0:05) 2. What are the most important factors […]
Navigating the Major Adverse Cardiovascular Event (MACE)-atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease versus Heart Failure
US Endocrinology. 2019;15(1):24–5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17925/USE.2019.15.1.24
Heart failure (HF) is a disease that affects about 10% of men and 8% of women over the age of 60 years, and its prevalence increases with age.1 HF and type 2 diabetes are each characterized by insulin resistance and are accompanied by the activation of neurohormonal systems; 35–45% of patients with HF have diabetes.2 HF is […]
Syed Abbas Raza, EASD 2018 – Latest advances in Aspirin use
Dr Raza discusses the current status of aspirin use and the latest clinical trial data. Questions: 1. What is the historic importance of aspirin use? (0:12) 2. What are the current practices and guidelines for aspirin use? (1:00) 3. What recent data have been presented in aspirin use? (1:50) 4. What should clinicians do in […]
Ameya Joshi, EASD 2018 – results from 4-year DiaCRE study
During EASD 2018 in Berlin, Dr Joshi discusses his poster presented at the congress: the results from 4-year DiaCRE study, which estimated cardiovascular risk in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Questions: 1. Tell us some more about your poster presented at this year’s EASD (0:12) 2. What is the most important current research in diabetes […]
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