Foreword – US Endocrinology, 2009;5(1):10-10
The benefits of preventing 7 million more people from developing diabetes worldwide annually and preventing complications in the 246 million people with diabetes would be immense.1 Even though the 2000–2015 UN Millennium Development Goals do not contain any reference to the impact of non-communicable diseases, the UN General Assembly in 2006 adopted UN Resolution 61/225, […]
Current Issues International Health and Diabetes
Diabetes and Tuberculosis – Old Associates Posing a Renewed Public Health Challenge
Intersecting Epidemics Diabetes and tuberculosis (TB) have existed for thousands of years. Great physicians in the ancient civilisations of Egypt, India, Greece and Rome described an illness that we now understand as diabetes. Similarly, the earliest evidence of TB has been found in the skeleton of a 30-year-old woman in Italy, dated to 5,800BCE.1 The […]
Diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa – Overview of a Looming Health Challenge
A few decades ago, diabetes was considered a disease of affluent societies. This statement would be rather inappropriate today as it is known that most of the world’s diabetes patients live in developing countries. In absolute numbers, most of these people live in China and India.
International Diabetes Federation – The Global Voice for Diabetes
IDF is an associated non-governmental organisation (NGO) with the UN Department of Public Information and is in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). The Federation also works closely with other diabetes organisations, governments, health professionals, civil society, education and research institutions, pharmaceutical and other industries and other […]
The Importance of Testing for Pre-diabetes—Using the Right Tool
Type 2 diabetes, formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes, is a chronic medical condition caused by insulin resistance, inadequate insulin secretion, or a combination of both.1 It differs from type 1 diabetes in that it can be acquired due to a multitude of lifestyle and medical factors rather than being caused by the […]
Doing More with What We Already Know—Prevention and Improved Coverage of Healthcare for Diabetes
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) launched the fourth edition of the IDF Diabetes Atlas at its 20th World Diabetes Congress in Montreal, Canada in October 2009.1 Based on conservative modeling assumptions, this edition estimates that the global prevalence of diabetes in 2010 has risen to 285 million people, representing 6.6% of the world’s adult population. […]
Too Much Sitting and Metabolic Risk—Has Modern Technology Caught Up with Us?
There is general recognition among physicians and other health professionals that regular participation in moderate- to vigorousintensity physical activity (i.e. brisk walking, jogging, lap-swimming) is one of the cornerstones of chronic disease prevention and management.
The Role of Insulin in the Regulation of PEPCK and Gluconeogenesis In Vivo
The regulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin is critical for the maintenance of desirable blood glucose concentrations.1 HGP reflects the sum of gluconeogenesis (the synthesis and release of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors) and glycogenolysis (glucose released from the breakdown of hepatic glycogen). An acute rise in portal vein insulin (such as occurs in […]
Progression from Basal to Pre-mixed or Rapid-acting Insulin—Options for Intensification and the Use of Pumps
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease in which beta-cell function continually declines, and most patients will eventually require insulin therapy to control hyperglycemia. In type 2 diabetes such treatment usually commences with oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs), but as betacell function declines, basal insulin is added to this regimen.1 Subsequently, as diabetes progresses, this treatment […]
Glucose Control in the Critically Ill Patient Utilizing Computerized Intravenous Insulin Dosing
Inpatient hospital hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.1,2 This is particularly true in the critically ill patient admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).3–9 Critically ill patients who require ICU care for more than five days have as high as a 20% risk of death and significant morbidity.10 Hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance […]
The Importance of Good Insulin Injection Practices in Diabetes Management
When insulin-requiring patients with diabetes are seen in the clinic,there is usually a great emphasis placed on the type of insulin the patient is taking and an even greater emphasis on the amount. However, how much emphasis is placed on the practical aspects of insulin use? Which technique is the patient using to inject the […]
The Role of Gastrointestinal Metabolic Surgery in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide.1 More than 20 million people in the US were suffering from diabetes in 2005, with approximately 30% being undiagnosed.2 It is estimated that by 2050 over 48 million Americans will have diabetes.3 In the US more than $132 billion was spent in 2002 on type 2 […]
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Management of Hyperglycemia
The global prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent years and is predicted to rise substantially further to 440 million by 2030. 1,2 Patients with type 2 diabetes face an increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications leading to significant morbidity and mortality and enormous healthcare expenditures.
Drug Profile – Saxagliptin, a Novel Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising dramatically, leading to an increase in the complications of this disease. The total number of people with diabetes may reach 440 million worldwide by 2030.1 Due to this development and the fact that most patients do not reach their therapeutic goals, novel, effective and safe treatment […]
The Importance of Reducing Hyperglycemia While Preserving Insulin Secretion—The Rationale for Sodium-coupled Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibition in Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes affects an individual’s ability to correctly regulate plasma glucose levels in the body, potentially leading to serious adverse events, including cardiovascular disease.1,2 It is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction with resultant hyperglycemia.3 This condition affects more than 300 million people worldwide4 and close to 24 million people in the US.5 […]
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes—Pathogenesis, Prediction, and Prevention
Type 1 diabetes has become one of the most studied polygenic disorders. It effects over 1.4 million people in the US, with a rising incidence in many western nations.1,2 It is clear that there is a strong hereditary component in the development of disease, with siblings at higher risk than offspring and both at higher […]
Inflammation in Pediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes—An Early Predictor of Complications?
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the loss of beta-cell function in the pancreas due to an autoimmune reaction. The incidence of type 1 diabetes peaks during childhood (six to nine years of age) and adolescence (12–15 years of age).1,2 Over the past few decades, an increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes has […]
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk
How Should Diabetes Be Treated to Minimize the Risk of Cardiovascular Complications?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, especially type 2, are closely intertwined and growing health threats in the US and many other regions of the world.1,2 Fully one-third of coronary artery disease (CAD) is attributed to or at least accompanied by diabetes, and in turn it is responsible for 60–80% of mortality in type 2 diabetes.3,4 […]
Advances in Surgery for Pituitary Tumors
Behavior of Pituitary Tumors
Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas
Pituitary adenomas are common intracranial tumours, and clinically relevant pituitary adenomas have been estimated to occur in about one in every 1,000 of the population. The vast majority of these adenomas are sporadic; however, there is increasing recognition that pituitary adenomas may also occur in a familial setting, and a recent estimate suggests that 5% […]
Advances in Our Understanding of Acromegaly – Is There an Optimal Management Regimen?
Active acromegaly is associated with a two- to three-fold increase in mortality that can be reduced to that of the background population with effective treatment to decrease growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels to within normal limits. Advances in surgical techniques, new approaches in radiotherapy and a choice of medical treatments make […]
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