Welcome to the winter edition of US Endocrinology. This edition features timely review articles, written by esteemed experts, succinctly examining a wide range of important topics. Diabetes and obesity provide a significant focus, which is appropriate given their prevalence has reached epidemic levels and both diseases pose a substantial threat to global health and well-being. This edition also includes articles on statin use in the HIV patient population, neuroimaging in congenital growth hormone deficiency, thyroid carcinoma, Addison’s disease and metabolic bone disease, all providing a worthy focus for our attention. Please peruse and enjoy the expert content and we welcome your feedback.
Foreword – US Endocrinology 2013;9(2):90
Obesity continues to pose a substantial health and economic burden in both the developing and developed world. In the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 36 % of adults are obese, with non-Hispanic blacks having the highest ageadjusted rates (~50 %). An even bigger concern is the rates of obesity in children […]
Hippocampal Volume in Type 1 Diabetes
The hippocampus plays an important role in human learning and memory and is known to be vulnerable to the effects of stress and disease.1 Within animal models of type 1 diabetes,2 significant hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia exposure has been shown to cause complex molecular and structural changes in the hippocampus.2,3 Within humans with type 1 diabetes, […]
Exercise is Medicine—The Importance of Physical Activity, Exercise Training, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Obesity in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Globally, type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. The total number of people with diabetes worldwide is projected to rise from 366 million in 2012 to 552 million in 2030.1 In 2012, type 2 diabetes imposed direct and indirect costs of […]
The Role of Anti-obesity Drugs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 2 diabetes is extremely high.
Can Bariatric Surgery be Considered Standard Therapy to Treat Type 2 Diabetes?
Obesity has become an increasingly important health problem. According to estimations of the World Health Organization, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has more than doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, 10 % of men and 14 % of women in the world were obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2), compared with 5 % […]
Advances in Insulin Injection Research Influences Patient Adherence
The emergence of new formulations of insulin and injectable medications has made insulin therapy safer and more effective. Evolution has stimulated innovations in insulin delivery systems that, in turn, may positively affect patient comfort and adherence to insulin therapy. This article will review the progress made in understanding skin and subcutaneous (SC) fat thickness at […]
Blood Glucose Monitoring
Deployment of an mHealth Patient Monitoring Solution for Diabetes— Improved Glucose Monitoring Leads to Reduction in Medical Expenditure
The preponderance of scientific evidence1–3 suggests that monitoring and control of blood glucose prevents vascular complications of diabetes and, consequently, long-term medical costs associated with diabetes.4–6 While this effect is widely believed to apply to long-term rather than nearterm costs, Sokol and colleagues reported that better medication adherence in diabetes may result in an annual […]
Use of Automated Bolus Calculators for Diabetes Management
Automated Bolus Calculators Insulin dosing algorithms have been used for years by healthcare providers to improve glucose control in patients with diabetes. With the development of insulin pumps and their increased use in the early 1980s, and with the publication of the results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in the early 1990s […]
Diabetes and Nutrition
Obesity and Weight Management
The Role of Phentermine/Topiramate Extended-release in the Treatment of Obesity and Obesity-related Adverse Health Consequences
Obesity has traditionally been defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. However, BMI has limitations, and obesity is now defined by a number of factors, including waist circumference.1 The growing prevalence of obesity is a global health concern.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy—More Questions than Answers
The global obesity pandemic has been well documented and affects both high- and low-income countries.1 In the US, two-thirds of adults are classified as either overweight or obese.2,3 In tandem with the high prevalence of obesity is a change in the prevalence of obesity among reproductive-aged women. Therefore, obesity-related morbid conditions such as chronic hypertension […]
Congenital Growth Hormone Deficiency – A Review with a Focus on Neuroimaging
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) causes low growth velocity in childhood, and if left untreated, severe short stature in adulthood. It is diagnosed by examining auxological data, thorough clinical examination and provocative testing. Patients with congenital GHD may have other pituitary hormone abnormalities and abnormal pituitary anatomy.
Current and Future Perspectives in Thyroid Carcinoma Treatment
Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem and with the growing use of diagnostic imaging, the number of thyroid nodules identified and undergoing further diagnostic evaluation by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is steadily growing. Only 5 % of all thyroid nodules harbour malignancy and thyroid cancer constitutes only 1 % of all epithelial malignancies worldwide […]
Dual-release Hydrocortisone in Addison’s Disease – A Review of the Literature
In healthy subjects, cortisol, an endogenous glucocorticoid (GC), is secreted by the adrenal gland in a pulsatile and circadian fashion, with a peak release in the morning at wakening and a nadir at midnight.1 It has been demonstrated that loss of cortisol rhythmicity is associated with fatigue, depression, and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance.2,3 In […]
Metabolic Bone Disorders
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