US ENDOCRINOLOGY – VOLUME 11 ISSUE 1 – SUMMER 2015
We are very pleased to present the summer edition of US Endocrinology. This edition presents a selection of timely and concise review articles by leading experts, with a focus on diabetes ahead of the 75th Scientific Sessions of one of our valued media partners, the American Diabetes Association, where free copies will be available to collect from the literature stand.
For those not focused on diabetes, we also feature a timely review on a new area of medicine – lifestyle medicine. The majority of non-communicable diseases are caused by unhealthy lifestyle behaviour and given the increasing global burden of such diseases, Robert Kushner and Jeffrey Mechanick discuss the need for preventative strategies. Other areas covered include obesity and metabolic disturbances and a review on chronic kidney disease.
Please enjoy the expert content and we welcome any feedback.
Foreword – European Endocrinology, 2015;11(1):9
Welcome to the spring edition of EU Endocrinology, which features a diverse range of articles covering multiple topics in endocrinology. This issue begins with an article by Sandow et al. that provides an overview of bioequivalence studies of recombinant human insulin preparations, as well as considering the relevance of human insulin in the age of […]
Is It Time to Screen the General Population for Type 1 Diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also referred to as insulin-dependent, childhood-onset, or juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease that occurs when insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas are aberrantly targeted and destroyed by a person’s immune system, usually leading to an absolute insulin deficiency.1 A diagnosis of T1D is made when a patient has glycemic […]
A Novel Small Molecule Drug Derived from Methimazole (Phenylmethimazole) that Targets Aberrant Toll-like Receptor Expression and Signaling for the Potential Prevention or Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
There are two major forms of diabetes mellitus, type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM), with the latter being the most common form, accounting for over 90 % of cases.1 Further, with the epidemic of obesity, T2DM can occur at any age, including children and adolescents,1 affecting nearly 30 million in the US and 400 […]
The Double Burden of Infectious Diseases and Diabetes— A Bidirectional Relationship
In 1971, Omran described the concept of epidemiologic transition to improve the understanding of patterns of disease in opposition of single disease epidemiology across the world and to provide better forecast and societal response to disease patterns.1 Although three main types of transition were described, including the classic transition experienced by most developed countries, the […]
Glycemic Control and Diabetic Complications— Is the Predominant Current Rationale Rational?
The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) has been equated with the rate of development of chronic diabetic vascular complications since the publication of the two classic intervention trials: the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial (DCCT) in patients with type 1 diabetes1 and the United KingdomProspective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) in patients with type 2 diabetes.2 This […]
A Call for Diabetes Self-management Education
It is widely accepted that diabetes self-management education (DSME) (and ongoing support) is an important component of care.1 Diabetes is a lifestyle disease that requires that the person living with the disease to make numerous daily decisions regarding food, activity, and medications. It also requires that the person be proficient in a number of self-care […]
The Functionally Refractory Patient in Diabetes— Prevalence and Predictors within Specialist Care Registries
Patient registries are essential in the management of diabetes.1,2 Numerous diabetes registries have been implemented3–5 in primary care populations, supporting the assessments of patient health, care delivery practices, primary prevention measures, and quality assessment. Patient registriesmay also be beneficial to specialist healthcare providers (HCPs) that primarily support referred patients who have longer treatment histories, more […]
The Refractory Patient—Managing Diabetes by the Ear
From a neutral perspective, in today’s world, diabetes management should be a cakewalk. Advances in pathophysiology have provided a rational basis for choosing appropriate therapy. Developments in pharmacology have created a wide spectrum of drugs, drug combinations, delivery devices, and formulations to choose from. Improvements in diagnostics have allowed better screening and monitoring of diabetes, […]
Obesity and Weight Management
Metabolic Disturbances and the Intestinal Microbiome
Recent advances in high-throughput metagenomic sequencing have provided a substantial body of knowledge regarding the gut microbiome and its potential relationship to disease.1 Although the search for genetic explanations of chronic disease, such as diabetes and insulin resistance, continues, there exists growing interest in the epigenetic determinants of such conditions. The human genome consists of […]
Lifestyle Medicine—An Emerging New Discipline
Rationale for Development of a New Discipline Lifestyle medicine is a nascent discipline that has recently emerged as a systematized approach for management of chronic disease. The individual elements and skillsets that define lifestyle medicine are determined, in large part, by the primary contributors to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Unhealthful lifestyle behaviors are among the leading […]
Chronic Kidney Disease
Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition that affects up to a third of patients who have diabetes, is a major public health problem in the US.1 There is a high level of interindividual variability in the rate of CKD progression, and reasons for this variability are not completely understood. Presence of comorbid conditions, genetic predisposition, […]
European Endocrinology Highlights
GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes and Beyond – New Insights 2015
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) were introduced for the therapy of type 2 diabetes about 10 years ago, with exenatide the first drug in the class. Natural GLP-1 is secreted post-prandially by the L-cells of the intestine. It stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. In addition to having direct […]
Which One to Endorse Among the Multitude of Lipid Guidelines?
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the West,1 and dyslipidemia is the major risk factor for atherosclerosis.2 The majority of CVD events would be more susceptible to prevention with effective management for prevention of dyslipidemia. Unfortunately, many patients who have high cardiovascular risk still have unfavourable lipid profiles.3 Because the […]
Cushing’s Disease – Quality of Life, Recurrence and Long-term Morbidity
Cushing’s disease (CD) is a rare condition caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Chronic hypercortisolism is associated with the development of several morbidities that impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and contribute to an increased mortality rate.1–5 Obesity and metabolic alterations, hypertension and cardio-/ cerebrovascular complications, neuropsychiatric, muscle/skeletal, hypercoagulability/thromboembolism and immune consequences remain […]
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